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Safeguarding member investment in your society

Policy campaign

9th December 2016
Last updated
9th November 2020
Policy issue
Law and corporate framework
The Bell Inn

Member capital at risk

At the start of 2016 we saw a genuine risk that member capital in societies would mistakenly be treated as any other form of retail investment and subjected to a new regime for ‘social investments’. Co-operatives UK was particularly concerned by a narrative which portrayed member investment in societies as an exploitation of loopholes not open to other legal forms.

We were especially mindful that community share offers and member investment in consumer retail co-operatives could have been adversely affected. 

In line with our position - and following our detailed submission to the regulator - the FCA has decided not to impose new regulatory burdens on any form of member investment in societies. 

In its consultation feedback the FCA sets out its decision not to alter the current arrangements. It has reiterated that society capital is already subject to regulation under the Co-operative and Community Benefit Societies Act and intimates that so long as societies raise capital from members in accordance with its Guidance there is no need to impose further regulation. 

Quote mark
This is one of the best outcomes we could have hoped for. It safeguards essential freedoms for people in the UK to pool capital to meet their own needs and aspirations, in line with our co-operative values and principles. 
– James Wright, Policy Officer, Co-operatives UK

While a very good outcome, it also reinforces our collective obligation to manage member investment responsibly, both to protect members who invest and to ensure societies are not misused as investment vehicles. This makes the Community Shares Unit's Handbook and Standards Mark as important as ever and underlines the need for all societies to engage fully with the FCA Guidance, especially on the subject of share capital. 

Download our submission to the FCA here

Summary of our key positions

One of the most powerful and fundamental qualities of co-operatives is how they allow people and organisations to pool capital to meet their common needs and aspirations, often delivering on a social mission. We believe the FCA should commit to a policy approach which allows people to pool resources to meet their own needs and aspirations while minimising the risks inherent in them doing so.  

Distinctive features of co-operatives and societies

Co-operatives, particularly ‘bona fide co-operative societies’ and ‘community benefit societies' (collectively referred to as societies), are distinctive in the social economy in form and function. They have evolved specifically to allow people to pool capital to meet their own needs and aspirations and to benefit their communities. This distinctiveness should be a key consideration for the FCA when assessing differing forms of social investment and degrees of risk for retail investors.

Scope of consultation

We do not consider most forms of member investment in co-operatives to be retail investments. We urge the FCA to ensure particular co-operative activities remain outside the scope of any future policy in this area. The following forms of member investment in co-operatives should remain outside the scope of this consultation:

  • Mandatory member capital subscriptions
  • Any member investment in ‘enterprise co-operatives’
  • Any member investment in ‘worker owned co-operatives’
  • Voluntary member investment in ‘consumer’ co-operatives

We assert that the following are forms of retail investment in societies within scope of this consultation:

  • Community shares
  • Non-member investment in the share capital of bona fide co-operative societies 

The case for supporting co-regulation of retail investment in societies

Societies have structural features which reduce some risks for retail investors, particularly in relation to exit, relationship with the enterprise, motivation, and possible returns on investment. These are subject to robust regulation by the FCA Mutuals Team under the Co-operative and Community Benefit Societies Act (2014).

Two crucial risk factors are business performance and changes in the circumstances of investors. Members investing in societies still run the risk that the business will underperform or fail altogether, resulting in either lower than anticipated returns, or a partial or total loss of their investment. And while there are clear exit horizons in societies, withdrawal may not be possible in the earlier years of many investments, which creates risk for investors who may suddenly need to liquidate their investment due to a change in their circumstances.

Core standards for the communication of business plans and the full disclosure of risk are required to mitigate in these regards, and it is these core standards that the Community Shares Unit (CSU) is successfully and effectively developing in its co-regulatory approach. The CSU is driving good standards in retail investment offers made be societies. This approach is bespoke to the form and function of societies and focused on consumer protection.

Retail investment offers made by societies require just such a bespoke approach. A ‘financial promotions regulations lite’ applied across legal forms indiscriminately would not be appropriate. The FCA should strengthen support for the current bespoke co-regulatory approach.

The case for developing a co-regulatory approach for community interest companies and charities

A case can be made for developing regulation for social investment in community interest companies and charities that is different from that for investment in PLCs.

However, the form and function of these entities requires a different approach to that for societies. Key differences relate to exit, investor relationship with the enterprise, motivations, ownership and control, and the possible returns on investment.

The FCA should develop separate co-regulatory approaches for community interest companies and charities. This should encourage enterprises which seek investment from a related community of interest, have democratic governance, and open up membership to investors. 

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